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Full text of "History Of Ancient India"

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The law-books also refer to "mixed castes," \expndtw4 which originated from inter-marriages and illicit rekr \expndtw14 tions. Next, there were the non-Aryans, the \i Mhc-\expndtw2 cbas, Canddlas, Svapakas, \i0 etc., considered even lower \expndtw4 than the Sudras, almost beyond the. pale of society.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li76\fi0\ri0\sb281\sa0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 The Stages of Life}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri58\sb176\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 The \i Dharmasdstras \i0 mention the rules of the four}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri65\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw11\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 stages of life \i (Asrama), \i0 which applied to a \i Dvijavt}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri61\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 "Twice-born."   The first, \i Brahmacarya, \i0 was the period}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri61\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-1\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 of studentship.   It began with the \i Upanayana \i0 ceremony,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri54\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 but the age of initiation often varied, as it depended on}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri54\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 the ckcurnstances and capacity of the youngster and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri54\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 the order to which he belonged.   He learnt the Vedas}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri58\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw6\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 and other sacred works or the Vedangas and Darsanas}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri47\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw3\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 etc., under the paternal care and guidance of teachers\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f2\cchs0 \'97}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri50\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Upadhyayas and Acaryas.   The BrahmacarFs life was}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri40\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 one of discipline and regular activity; he had to study}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri40\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 diligently, worship daily and perform \i Agnihotra,   \i0 beg}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri25\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw8\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 alms, collect wood, and bring water etc., for his \i guru}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 or teacher.   Modern  students  may well  take  a  leaf}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri29\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 out of the book of their ancient compeers.    After the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri29\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 completion of education, the  \i 'Brahmacdri \i0 entered the}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri29\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Grihasthdsrama \i0 i.e., married and became a householder,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri18\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 A \i Grihastba \i0 was expected to give charity liberally and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw12\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 to clear the three debts he owed to gods,  \i Risis \i0 and}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri18\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 fore-fathers by \i Yajna, \i0 study and continence, and pro-}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri18\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw2\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 geny  respectively.   In  the  third  stage,   \i Vanaprastha,}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw9\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 an individual renounced all the "good things" of life}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qr\li0\fi0\ri4\sb0\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f2\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw5\f2\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 and repaired to the solitude of the forest for calm con-}\par }